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•CT» »i 

Municipal Institutions 
in Ontario 


K. W. McKay 

Oh* municipal itutitutiotu at* an tviOtnct of tk* txttnt 
/• wAkA a rtpretmtatiw gmvemment kat approved of cv 
•ptviiam for ik* tguaiimatitn of opportunity nnd exptnse. 

T%«furth^ dtvoi^puunt of thes* inttitutiom ihould be 
_^t$rodfy enJarginf the field of c—»p*ratim and providing 
for a iimittd tuptrvitum through a department of the 

St. TAomas, 

/antiary, igt6 






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— -'*"--'- — 

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Municipal Institutions 
in Ontario 


The first statutes of Canada contained Acts rclatiiig to 
the municipal government of those iiortiuns of the country 
having a sufficient number of inhabitants to require it. 
Development, however, was slow until 1841, when The 
District Councils Act was passed. Under this Act, the 
Government retained the right to appoint the wardens, clerks, 
and treasurers, and approve of by-laws. This was followed 
by a considerable agitation for an extension of principles of 
responsible government. The result was the passing of The 
Municipal Act of 1849, providing for tlie incorporation of 
local municipalities. This has been termed the Magna Charta 
of municipal institutions, not only of Ontario, but of the 
newer provinces of Canada. Although amended at nearly 
every session of Pailianicnt, chanRes liave hern chiefly in the 
direction of amplification and detail. 

When the Ontario I^cgislature met in 1S(>8, the municipal 
corporations Ci the Province consisted of thirty-six counties, 
three hundred and ninety-nine townships, and one hundred 
and four cities, towns, and villages, all working under the 
powers conferred by the Act respecting mutiicipal institutions 
in Upper Canada. Under Provincial control, the general 
t. ..'icipal development of the Province has exceeded the 
hi^lhest anticipation of its originators. In no quarter of the 
world are there institutions of a simitar kind so idmirably 
adapted to the wants, intelligence, and genius of the people. 
In reference to this. Sir Charles Dilke, in his "Problems of 
Greater Britain," says: "The system of local government 
adopted in Ontario may be looked upon as nearly pu.fect, 
and certainly the best in the whole world." 


Municipal Divisions 

Countio. — Couiiiicii were iiiteiulctl to be fct.ncd b> 

Iirofliiiiiiitioii of the l,iciitrnaiit-i.;ovcriHir, to cuiisist ot m» 
townsliips nol within ttic liniils of any incorporated county. 
Under the present law, new cuun ts can he orsiiniicd onlv 
under tlic autli'-rity of special Acts of t!u' LiKislature. There 
are in all thirty-eiRht county corporations, two of which were 
constituted since Confederation— the provisional O-jiity of 
Hilihurton in ImTi, cini posed of townsliips within th? limits 
of the incorporated Counties of Peterhoroujih and V. toria; 
and the County of DufTerin. constiluted, in lH7:i, out of 'own- 
ships previously within the limits of (ircy, Simcoe, and 
WelliuRton. The County of Halihurton never completed its 
ofRanization, ;iinl is still connected with the County of 
Victoria for liic purposes of the administration of justice. 
All the other counties were formed previous to lH.'i;!. There 
arc four coimty comrations composed of a union of countie;* 
— Leeds and tlrenville, Northumberland and Durham. 
Prcsroit and Kusscll, Storniont, Dundas, and GlcnRarry, In 
lh<.-,e unions t'u- county in which the court house is situated 
is known ..s tli^ senior county. The procecdinRS for the 
separation of a Junior coimty from a senior county is now a 
subject for special IcRishition, lli" jirovisions ol the general 
law in reference thereto havinff been repealed in 1909. 

Townihipi. — In the organized counties, townships oi 
unions of townships arc already constituted to the number of 
four hundred and twcnty-eiBht, containing from twenty 
thousand to cL'hty thousand acres tr.i.'i. 'lownships outside 
of this area may, by proclamation, be annexed to any adjacent 
county. Junior townships in a union may, by by-law of Uie 
county council, become separated when they have one 
hundred resident freeholders and tenants on the assessmcnl 
roll. In districts, tlic inhabitants of any township having a 
population of one hundred persons may become a township 
nmnicipality. (Organization meetings for this purpose are 
called by the District Judge or stipendiary nagistrate, on 
.)etition of not less than thirty inhabitants, i.i the districts, 
about eiglit hundred townships havf 1 jen M.ivvyed, 
nearly all of which are six miles .s(|uare, but only one 
hundred and Iwenly-unf \n\\ slpp niuiiicipalities hive bi rti 

Cities, Towis ard Villages— .\ii iinincorporatcd villaj.;i 
and ~ 'mrbs, having a population of seven hundred and fifty 
will'. 1 area of not more than five himdred acres, may be 



iticorljoralcil l>y iht rounly courcil a> .1 villaiir. The law In 
hit rctprcl lia.l not al«ay» hrrn llii lanif, ai ilic larneit 
Milam- Icrrilory, l.'( Jriunal. in llir (.uunly o( I'rtjcoll, covcri 
(.lur llinuianil anil filly acre. Wlirn Ihc poiuilation rcacliri 
Iwo llic I iriilcmn|.(„,ycrnor in Coiiniil may. by 
[.rorlaiiiatiiin. crtrt .1 lillagc iiilo a town, anil when il hai • 
pii|>ul;iliiin 111 fiflicn lliniliianil, a lo«n may li, proclaimed a 
lily. 'Ihc inciirlinrallon of luivnj and cilirs ii eflcrlrd by 
iippliialiiin In The Onlarin Railivay and Municipal Hoard. 
Ilie area o( Imvnj varicn from six lliou«and lo (our hundred 
acres. »ii(JKe«linK ihat the special eircnnulances connected 
viith each incorporalion have lo he cnniidered. There arc in 
all two hunilreil anil seveiily.«ix lowns ami lilhiKc. and 
Iwrnlylwo cilies in Ihe Province, of which three cilies, (orly 
Kiivns, and four villaiics. are situated in the northern districts. 

Governing Bodies 

County Cowiclll — rounly rnuiirili, ai oris, illy contti- 
lulnl, wttr rompoinl of rccv. iinil ilr|mly rctvn (nr ca^h 
live liunHrcd voirr« in a local municipalily. Unilir Ihii 
jyilcm ihry Kradually l.ciamc «o iitmlcldly llial it w» 
difficult i„ traiuaci liu«in>'»9 cxpcdiliouily, and Iht txpcni of 
holdioB mrclinci wai hravy. In lomc caio Ihr rrprcicnla- 
llon ill a founly coimril of imall incorporated tnunicipalitiM 
»•• out of all proportion to ihi-ir intcrrali in county taxation. 
The qiir.tion of county council reform wa« conii ' red by the 
Leuiilaluie for a nnnilicr of years. In msi l,ree BilU 
iilatinK to the nuhject were introduced in the Lcfililalure. 
In unn a new corilitulion lor county councilj wai adopted, 
ill which the main idea was tliat every member shoiihl be 
representative of the whole coum The Act reduced the 
<iie of county councils generally chansing the basis of 

representation from that o{ local m.inicipalilies to districts, 
into whirh all the counties were divided by a commission 
compo.«d of Cour'y JiidRcs; the number of districts in each 
county, varying from four to nine, was determined by 
impulation, assessed value, and extent of territory. Two 
members elected from each for two years formed tl- county 

Under the old system, a man's conduct in the local 
council, with which the people were best acjuainted, was the 
main factor in his re-election. Under the new system, there 
was a separate nominati^.i day for the election of candidates 
for the county council, when the ratepayers had an opportun- 
ity o consider directly the duties and the expenditures of the 
county council. The change proved satisfactory, except in 
counties where it was found impossible to form all the dis- 
tricts out of adjoining municipalities. The more important 
objection was that the separation of the county council from 
the local municii>al councils lessened the importance attached 
to the reeveships. The original system, moreover, permitted 
members of the various local councils to come together and 
bring their joint experiences to bear on the problems of 
municipal administration. In this way, no doubt, develop- 
ment of township government was greatly assisted. Many 
local municipalities were without a resident representative, 
and it is not surprising that considerable opposition developed 
from those who were unable to secure election in the districts. 

Owing to continual opposition, an optional system was 
provided in 1«I3, whereby a majority of the councils of the 

If ,h, H,r T !' ': ", """*" '""'^ '»'"■'' o" "" abolition 
o thed.str,c.5 and .he formation of county councils composed 
reeves and mayors, with voting power on financial 
quesfons ■„ proportion ,o equalized assessment o^ he 
mun.c,pah,y represented. Before any county had adop ed 
th., there was a change of government, and a return, in 1907 
to the ortgmal system of councils composed of re ves and 
deputy reeves, the number of deputy reeves being reduced by 

msTeirVfi ' T'f ?'■' *"= ='"'=■' "" "'" "--«"<! voter' 
mslead of live hundred, as formerly. 

Townahip Council.. - Township councils, as originally 
constituted, consisted of live members, elected annuafly by 
general vote or by wards, the reeve and deputy reeve if kny 

the Act of 1866 was passed, providing for the election of 
eves deputy reeves, and councillors by general vote In 
1873 there was a return to the ward system; the reeve how- 
ever, conltnued to be elected by general vote, the deputy 
reeves bemg selected by the council for each five hundred 
names of qualified in the township. This system was 
continued until 1898, when it was provided that the election 
lr"l' '"'t """^"lo" should be by general vote. In 
1806 when the county council system was changed, the 
election ■„ townships in organized counties of not more than 
three deputy reeves by general vote was authorized, one to 
be elected for each thousand names of persons on the voters' 
list qualified to vote at municipal elections. 

co™^'"^ ."^r""''--"^'""^' """'"'' '■"<■ ^l">y> been 
composed of five members. Previous to 1866, the reeves 
were chosen by the councils. Since that date, the reeves and 
deputies have been elected as such by general vo'e. 

Town Councils.-The constitution of town councils has 
been frequently the subject of legislative experiment. Under 
he Act of 1849, a town council consisted of three councillors 
from each ward, who, at their first meeting, elected from 
among themselves the mayor, the reeve, and also (if there 
were five hundred resident freeholders and householders on 
the collector s roll) a deputy reeve. By the Act of 1858 the 
election of the mayor was taken from the council and 
cntrus ed to the ratepayers. In 1806 the number of town 
councillors was reduced to two for each ward in towns having 
five wards, but was left at three for each ward in towns ol 
ess than five wards, and it was provided that bur one council- 
or shouW retire annually in each ward, the representatinn of 
the town Ml the county council was increased by the addition 
of a deputy reeve for every five hundred persons appearing 
on the last revised assessmenl -,1|. The right to elect the 

whom It has ever since beer, vested e'«tors, in 

towns where there wero no, more Than five wards two 

:::";""! t" "t"'^ '"" '°7"- "- "--Tni'eVo'r; 

A town with at least five thousand population mav hv 

u^n^ r-Tt^-^,!-;- ::;r ^ ^- ^ ^-^ 

J wmcn It IS situate; previous to 1900 all 


inly 111- l.n.iiKlit aln,u 

owns had this pnv.ltgc. This rtlitvM them from taxation 
for county purposes, but renders them liable for administration 
of justice and other services rendered by the county. Eight 
Ontario towns are in this position. 

City Coimcil^-City councils were at first composed of 
one alderman and two councillors for each ward, the mayor 
being chosen from among the aldermen. A second alderman 
for each ward was soon added, and the right to elect a mayor 
w-as transferred to the municipal electors. The Act of 1866 
abolished the office of councillor, increased the number of 
aldermen to three for each ward, and restored to the council 
the right of choosing its own mayor. This system of selecting 
a mayor was abolished in 187.1. Except as varied by an 
occasional Act, this was the constitution of city councils until 
I90.t, when provision was made for reducing the number of 
aldermen to two for each ward, subject to the approval of 
he electors. The councils of cities with less than fifteen 
thousand population were at the same time authorized to 
provide by by-law for a council composed of a mayor and 
one alderman for each one thousand of population, and in 
cuies with over fifteen thousand population, the optional 
principle of having the aldermen elected by general vote was 

.r„•^°"^f Control.-The exigencies of municipal adminis- 
tration ,n the City of Toronto led to an innovation in the 
general law, providing for a cabinet, or board of control to 

coZil"" """ ^'^''" "' *'" ""• '" """«"»" •'!"> 'the 

The board, as at first constituted in 1896, consisted of the 
mayor and three aldermen appointed by the council, who 
could be removed at any time on a two-thirds vote and others 
appointed. The salary of aldermen on the board was limited 
to seven hundred dollars, and it was their duty to prepare 
estimates award contracts, inspect worsk, nominate and 
dismiss officers, and fix their duties. 

Three years later the law was made applicable to all 
cities of over forty-five thousand population, except Hamilton, 
with a salary limit of four hundred dollars. In 1900 the 
number of controllers to be appointed was increased to four 
and in 1903 the salary limit in cities of one hundred thousand 
was increased to one thousand dollars, and a change was 
made providing that candidates for the position of controller 
were to be elected b, the city a. large. A system of 
cumulative voting was at first adopted. This, however was 
changed in favor of one vote for each controller in 1905 when 
the salary limit was again increased to two thousand five 
hundred dollars. Candidates for the position of controller 

ald.rin,n a that wa. removed in 1906 and the 
?o"r mayor"" "" ''°""°" °' """""" "''"'' "■' "'"' " 

The board of control system was in 1909 extended to all between one hundred thousand and lortyfive thousand 
population, subject to t;,e approval of vote of the electors 

The Act of 191,1 gave the council authority to vary the 
recommendations of the boards in certain cases on a 
two-inirds vote. 

in J,n' ^''^^ °,' "".'""^ •■"'°'""' "" '>■"=■" '" "»'. Hamilton 
!„„!?: ='"'', ''""■"""■""^ ■="= other city with a sufficient 
populat.on elected a board of control for the first time in 
1914 That the system works well is evidenced by the action 
of the ratepayers of Ottawa, who in 1911 voted for a 
continuance of the system. 

tho Jof .l""""' •^"''" "' "" '"'"''■ "' -l-'-Buished from 
those of the council, are: to prepare estimates and certify the 
same o the council; to award contracts and report to the 
eouncl, may amend the same on a two-thirds vote- to 
.nspect. and to report to the council, on municipal works at 
least- monthly; to nommate all heads of departments Li 
sub-departmcnts, and recommend their salaries, and suspend 
or dismiss the satnc. and to report. By a m,-,jority vote the 
council may refer back matters for further consideration All 
t^he members, including the mayor, arc elected for one' year 

Under a board of control organization, the work of the 
committees of the council is largely eliminated. In Ottawa 
hey have already been abolished. The council, however is 
he safety valve, without which the board of control would i„ 
time, come m for unfair criticism, as the details of their work 
would not be known to a, many a, at present. As an advisory 
board, the council is a necessity. 
The salaries paid are; 

Toronto .. 
Ottawa ... 











established, the members were elected for two or three years 
one-half or one-third to retire each year, according to the' 
number elected for each ward. This was continued until 1869 
when It was decided that members of all councils should be 
elected annually. I„ 19O6 the Legislature authorized an 
optional system of election for two years, when assented to 
by vote of the electors. The demand for this change was 





not gtntral, as few, if any, municipalitie. have taken >dvanU(e 
of It. There are but two exception! to the general law. The 
City of Kingston returnee, in 1907, to the old tyitem of 
election of three aldermen for each ward for three years to 
retire in rotation, 1916. In 1908, the City of Peterborough was 
aulhorued to elect aldermen for two years, half to retire 
annually; the elections of 1909 were by general vote. In the 
lollowing year a return to the ward system was approved by 
the electors. Two aldermen were elected for each ward in 
January, 1911, the one receiving the larger number of votes 
being elected for a two-years term. 

PoUce Villages.— There is an intermediate condition of 
populous localities in townships known as police villages 
organized originally to enforce regulations for the prevention 
of fires, the storing of gun-powder, and the abatement of 
nuisances. Since Confederation, they have developed rapidly 
in communities desiring the conveniences a village may 
provide without the expenses or liabilities of a separate 
municipality, no fewer than one hundred and twenty-five be- 
ing in existence in 1915. The ji-isdiction of the offices of the 
township is not interfered with. The treasurer pays the 
orders of the police trustees out of their special funds and 
the clerks perform the same duties as before the village was 

Where a locality has a population of one hundred and 
fifty m an area of not more than five hundred acres, a 
iiiajonly of the freeholders may petition the county council 
to erect the locality into a police village. This gives the the right to elect three person,, known as police 
trustees, whose business it i.s to improve the highways of the 
vilhgc, to make contracts for the supply of light, heat, or 
r.Aver, to enforce regulations for prevention of fires and 
ah.nirment of nuisances, and generally to exercise many of 
the powers conferred on village corporations. Provision is 
m.ide for incorporation when a police village has a population 
of not less than five hundred. This continues the organization 
makes the villace liable to the township for actions for 
damaces caused by the non-repair of highways, and extents 
the powers of village corporations for water, light, heat, and 
power works. 

Qualification of Members of Councils 

=,h„ T';^ nullification for election to a municipal council h 
about the same ar for electors. Candidates are required to be 
:„'",/"'"""»""' '«'^"'>'-<""= years of age. That men 
only are eijtttled to be elected was first expressed in The 
Mun,„pa| A t „, ,8-,^ ^|,^„„^^ ,^.^ ^.^^ ^,^^^1^ .___ , 

and accepted as the meaning of, the previous Act. A specified 
property assessment has always been necessary. Residence 
.n the county, if not in the municipality, was at first required 
but at present residence within two miles of the municipality' 
IS suffirient. ' 

At Confederation, the values necessary to qualify 
candidates were: Mutiny 

In townships $400 freehold or $800 leasehold 

In villages goo " 1200 

I" 'own" 800 " 1600 

'" cities 4000 " SOOO 

It was necessary that persons elected should be rated on 
the assessment roll for these amounts. In 1873, this was 
changed by providing that candidates elected were entitled 
to qualify If they were sufficiently rated for part freehold and 
part leasehold property. 

There appears to have been some dissatisfaction with the 
high qualification required in cities, as the amounts were 
reduced to one thousand five hundred dollars freehold and 
three thousand dollars leasehold. Another important change 

Z'Su 'Vr- "■'■" " "" """""^ "■" ""e qualification 
value should be over and above all liens and encumbrances 
affecting the same, the amount entered on the assessment roll 
to be the value from which the deductions should be made 
I he question at once arose as to a tenant's qualification on 
property that has been mortgaged by his landlord, and it was 
decided by the Courts to refer only to encumbrances created 
by the owner of the leasehold interest. 

This led up to a further amendment in 1883, providinir 
that assessment for freehold to four thousand dollars should 
be sufficient in any municipality, w'.ether encumbered or not 
This amount was reduced in 1392 to two thousand dollars,', 
when the qualification values in all urban communities were- 
fixed as at present: 

y"'»S" ?2»0 freehold, $400 leasehold. 

'"wns 600 " 1200 " 

Cities 1000 " 2000 


of prop" .; r.reu„:r" "-"rr^' "^'"-^ '» "■« >- v„u„ 

-lollar, freehold n™„u"'u„dTed don "; "' .'*° '"""<'"<' 
titi" and towns -,1 („., i, f . ""' '"''hold, and for 

hundred I'r'i.::/: .^■■; 'J „f .'iv;:-'."''' "-■! "-- 

>ll">- township, were still fjltt, " / T""" '">"'"'' '" 
Hona„ . „„ld and .wr'lIlnrdir.Tets'eUd"' '"""'"- 

.0..0 ,.„vidi„, ti"t"r„ d'atrr, r:;. t"n ■" '" ■'" *" 

property on which there w-r ^ ''>' '" '"""* «> 

Jfunicipal Ae. of tou'o ,, ■","'', "['"" °' '""■ »"<' The 
^-">- arrears of tal^HisZLt'o" "" -"- """""^ 
-l.oseh:w„^o^"::^::^;,:'"'^'"^-'- -"W-Keepers, and 

i"-. «-,o are^is.:,an«':d^ro:h: r,^ :^t"'' .ii-i^r"'^'-;'- 

cTnnr.roK;^eer™^- "■^' "--" ^"-"td 
need not. The ± i, ■ "'"""' "'" """-^^ <""alilied, 

PHvile.e. A tah^^^ e7r ^d',^;:iet:d"":^o'"%'"^" ' 
accept „fl,ee, .ay be ,„.„ari,y eo'nvLLd a^dCnirhe"!" " 

The Municipal Franchise 

municipality, >vh„ „.„, 3" °; tenant, residing i„ .h. 
'"bjccts, rated on the 11,2 /"','! "' '<" '"<> "riH.h 
property value,, whj.h are .r,T". /°" '"' "'""''■' «"' 
■nunicipalitie,. ',„ . 66 te fealn'I". """""' ■='"'" "' 
'ownship,, $100: on wl i I, an "T'i 1">lification for a 

D.ce„,ber,a,hof.he; „l,:rhe ^" ''^'•' *'"°" 

= "essn,enl roll, in cities for $lo , ' *.'" '"'''''• "^o'"' 
W"e allowed to vote c"'ce in eaci. ".'■ *"°' "'""«"■ »^"«^ 
The only change in 'he rynrl:" ad"' ■"""•"' """*'• 
qualifying amount for a vote in T '" ""■ "•■" ">« 
reduced in cities to S4IM in V . " """"""PaHties was 

5'«0. and the di^Sa.ion'for"' *'°°' •■'"'' '" ^■""«" '" 
removed until rci. osed by°a by L":r|"r"'"' °' ""^ 
municipality. I„ ,h, ,„,, .^ '"" °' ">» council of any 

extended .o\.l, who ':^rere7on",\' ""' '""="■"' -' 
mcomc amounting ,oj;400a„d"ir ^V""™"' ""' '" 

continuously fr„,^ the comp^e.To: ^rif" '"„"■» municipality 
the election. ompjetion of the roll to the date of 

adop^-r-aT-b^otfprrnreV.ary rd""' ^''" ''' ^"'- -' 
>"». the system of opervoting L '"""""^^ """°" '" 
voting by ballot was re,„rrcd a. all .?":• "" f'"^'"' '"^ 
'"»• In the following yelr the sal .'°"' """ ''""■"'■ 
the voting on a by-law '*'"™ "" "PP'ied to 

adap[^,r^™:;;L,^t;^„tr't,f?;""'' '" "'"■ "- 

municipal franchise was e"te„ded t''""^ >■'"■ "d ,he 
owned twenty acres or more „( 1 / '"" "' ''""'" """O 
sufficient to give the nec^ssarv ol,'! fi "•"'' " "" ""■"""" 
-ns were required to ve resided o^'h™ ,'° "'"■ ^'- 
months during the year p'ev ous to >^ .™ '" "''" 

assessment roll. P'evious to the completioi, of the 

Under The Voters' Li«tc 4 . ■ • 
municipal voters name should hV ' ." '.' .""""y that a 
" finally revised before he i 'en it "h':'" '" "" """'^^ '"' 
right to vote was extended to w d ' """"■ '" "'*■ "■= 

who are owners of real Property ateTorth"""""'" "°'"" 
'or the qualifying amounts A f ' assessment roll 

Qualification of voterr„wnsw.ih"ier,'rh' '^f '""=' "" 
population was reduced to 311^ ^ J .^"" ""■" thousand 
to one hundred dollar, ""''"'' ''°""». »»<) i" village. 


Assessment and Taxation 

r..ulT''^°JllV'°,'7 ?'"""* '" ■"""'"P'" '""ion i« th, 
remit of gradual dfvelopiiKnt. In 1793, during the lirit 
.«.lon of the .ccond Legislature of U per Canada, an Act 
wa. pa.sed to authori.e and direct the levying and collecting 
ot a„c„ment rate, in every district within this Province." 
This provid d lor the appointment of assessor, and the 
J'cIiThT .°J ■:-=''.■■"'■'. P"""»' property. The ,.,„ «.„ 
levied by the justices in quarter session. When the present 
system of municipal instiiutions wa. established, the authority 
lo levy taxes wa, transferred to the municipal councils The 
oriKinal system was continued for many years, with very little 
chanRc An aRitation. however, gradually arose for a more 
equitable basis, and in 18T8 the Legislature appointed a special 
committee to consider and take evidence on the subject of 
municipa taxation and exemptions. Ten year, later the 
report of a municipal commission contained an extended 
reference to taxation. The only important change from 
he basis of taxation f„st established was made at th-t time 
he live stock and implements of the farmer being exenpted 
from assessment as personal property. The elTcct of an 
active agitation for some reform in the assessment of personal 
property resulted m the appointment, in 1000, of a commission 
TnZTj'J "",'■''"'' """'io"- '•» report, together with a 
consolidation of the assessment law, of the Province wa, 
..resented in 190=. Thi, showed that ninety-five r,er ce^t o 
he municipal taxation of the whole Province was levied on 
the assessed value of land, and buildings, and that in town- 
ships practically the whole tax was derived from thi, ,ou7c" 
Ihe commission recommended that the main basi, or 

and buildings, personal property, machinery ot Ol kind, to be 
exempt^ New source, of municipal revenue were ,ugge,ted 
to be levied on the actual value of lands and building, 
occupied for >,us,ncss or residence purposes. The Legislature 
d d not approve of the residence tax. but adopted the principle 

,1 k r"i T" 'u"- ■^'■'' '"'='"■'" ' "" o" business of 
a kinds, based on the value of the property occupied for 
bu nes, p„,po,„, the tax to be levied in the same manner a, 

da s Bed and h' ', """•''" "" ""='""' ""'P""" "<« 
classified and .heir values increased from twenty-five per 

I cnt. to one hundred and fifty per cent. 

nmoJn'','''"''/"' "" '""P"''""" °' "-^ '" " definite, and its 
rTdes ■;, "^">-."«"-"'i- I' " applied to all profession,, 
trades, and businesses with a definite location. It is not 

ctaltntd llial llili Ijx ii equitable in cvtiy reipicl The 
percentage, were determined largely by the proportion o( 
pe.ionalty tan (oriiirrly paid by each claia of builneii Tl n 
wa. inaccurate, and the exi.ting tax perpetuate, the 
inaccuracy. The buiinei. lax eliminate, all opportunitie. for 
evasion and di.honc.ty, and i> lirople and incxpen.ive in 
adniini.lralion. It increa.e. revenue by not allowing anyone 
in bURincA. to escape taxation, 

IncoBl. the old Act,, income wa. 
included in th- term "personal properly." .\, now defined 
all income derive.l either wil'iin or without the Province by 
any person resident therein is liable to taxation. Thi, includes 
the income from mines and gas or oil well,, the minimum as- 
sessment on the latter being twenty dollars per year, 

Incom. Exempdon.— In nr,.|. the assessment exemptions 
inclu.led income from farm, real estate, caplal liable 
to assessment, and personal earnings to four hundred 
dollars. In 1»»7, the exemption of personal earning, 
had been increas,,! i„ seven hun.lrcl dollars and four 
hundred dollars income from other sources, provided 
it did not exceed one thoisand dollars. Ten years later thi. 
was changed, and no p, son was allowed more than seven 
hundred dollars exemption. The gradual increase in cost of 
living brought about a O.rther consideration of the que.tio.l, 
and in 100:1 personal earning, were exempt to one thousand 
dollars, and other income to four hundred dollar.. The 
following year the personal earning, income of assessed 
householder, only in cities of ten thousand population was 
exempt to the extent of one thousand dollars, and ii. other 
raunicipalitie. ■ . .even hundred dollar.. The exemption of 
non-hou.eholders' income being limited to four hundred 
dollars was referred to as an attempt to lax bachelors. 

The principle of the business tax wa. introduced at thii 
time, and all income derived from business paying the tax 
was exempt. In 1906. the personal earnings exemption of 
one thousand dollars was extended to towns of 6ve IhouMnd 
of population and over, and the exemption of non-hou.ehold- 
ers in hi. class of municipaliies was increased to six hundred 
dollars. In 1910, these exemption, were again increa.ed to 
one thousand two hundred dollars and nine hundred dollar, 
re.pectively in all cities and towns. The principal reason 
given for this discrimination was that the cost of living in the 
larger urban communities wa. more expensive. 

The particular income exemptions included in the present 
Act are: income from surplus fund, of any regi.tered friendly 
society: official income of Governor-General and Lieutenant- 
Oovernor; income of officers of array and navy and pen.ioni 
from the Imperial treasury; income of a farmer from hil 

farm; income from ilork i„ a„, incorporated company the 
income of which i. liable to at.ei.ment^ income (rnm .t„ I, 
or iharc in a toll roarl. 

In Citin •nd Towin,_Income from per.jnal earninir. 
|.".Mc, h„,,srh„l,lcr or h.a.l of fnn.ily. „„,. ,ho,„a„.l fnc 
hiindrcl .lojiar.; non hou.cliohler, ..x hun.lrc.l dollars. 

In Townihlp, ,nd VHUf.l.- Income from pergonal 
carninK»: a„c„cd ho„>cl,older or l.cad of family, one 
lh,.,„and l„o him.lrcl dollar,; non-ho.nch. .r, lour hundred 

Income from other th:.n personal carninsMo (our hundred 
dollars IS exempt when income from small sources does not 
exceed that n'Mjunt. 

Incom rom mines is taxed under The Supplementary 
Kevenue , lor I'royincial purpose, and as result one-h.ilf is 
exempt in the Town of Col.alt, and two-tliird. in other 

Property E.emptiont-Most of the property exemptions 
iil present m force were taken from the Act of Istio the ad- 
dition, heinn seminaries „( learninn. puhnc parks, and ma- 
cliinery f,,r mannfarlnrinir and farming. 

The structures, rails, poles, ties etc., on the riifht of way 
of a railway are exempt from assessment. The Province 
however, coikcts from sixty to twenty dollars per mile of 
track, a ortu n of which is distributed among the municipali- 
ties in proportion to population. 

The Assessment Act of Ontario contains the most moo- 
ern ideas in reference to raunicii :il taxation. The most im- 
portant features in addition to the business assesment arc the 
reduction of income exemption in the case of those who are 
not householders, the specific assessment value per mile tor 
telegraph and telephone companies in townships and assess- 
ment based on gross receipts in urban municipalities and 
police villages-the assessment of land including buildings 
at actual value. The taxable values of the province have 
increased very rapidly under its administration. 

The total assessed values of the Province for 1014 show 
the following increase when compared with 1904: 

In townships 43 p„ „„, 

In towns and villages 95 per cent. 

'" "'■" 226 per cent. 

Municipal Ownerihip 

On« of tht mom imporlani (ralurr:! In connection Willi 
the municipal initiluliiinn o( Ontario i« llic rxlrnl to whicli 
the rouiilflpal ownrohip i<|ra hai been ilrveloiied In urban 
lomraunilicj. ruhlir .ipi„i„n wai at fimt oppoicd to the 
rouncili hnvlng anylliii,^. lo iln with enlrrpii.e. that cuulcl be 
tarricil on li> private Indivichiali. It «a> Ihouehl thai the 
main hinhivays innl.l n>.l lie lic-pl up iimlir iiiunleipal manaue- 
ment, anil an elahorale 5.v,tcni nl toll t.ia.l. under company 
or individual manaKemenl »a« the result. The cndllion in 
which jome of the roadj were kept awakened public Inlcretl. 
:.nd, ai population In. rca.ed. the road> «radually came under 
the control ol the coiinciU. ■ 

When municipal hulilulions were introduced, provi.ion 
»a» made for rcBiilalinK the uic of the ilreetn by gai and 
water conipanie.. Ciiic, and town, were Riven the .am.- 
power, at companiei. but before« them, thev were 
recpilreil to consider the purchase of the plant, of companle. 
already operalinij tli.rcin. Few raunicipaliliei excriiscd their 
rmhn in this respect previous to Confederation, with the 
re.ult that the purchase uf the vested interciti of companies 
has been a handicap in l!,e deielopmcnt of many a proBr... 
sive comnnmity. 

The ejlablishnicnt of waterworks in a few of the larger 
cities and towns led to the passing of a Municipal Waterworks 
Act in l»sn. and a similar Lisht and Heat Act iu the followinR 
year, to ul,irh all ,,f the powers necessary for municipal 
ownership v ere filly set forth with provision for nianai-emenl 
by the council or a commission, as the council mixhl Icler- 
mine. A sreat impetus was thereby (riven to the eslal.lish- 
ment of those nlililics in urban municipalities. The maraRr 
ment of the companies already established came in for 
coiisidecMc criticism, and they were force.l to secure further 
legislation to protec- their vested interests. This provided 
that before munici-.alilies could establish Ras. electric or 
water works, tlir ricln, of the exisliim- company should be 
purchased. The introduction of electricity for liBhlinu 
purposes. owiuR to the low cost of installation and distribu- 
tion, was rapidly taken advantage of by all classes of urban 
muiucipalilics. The municipal ownership idea was Rreatlv 
ccouraBed in liioil, when councils were deprived of the riRli'l 
to grant fn.ochises to public utility companies without 
securing the assent of the electors. 

The recognition of the telephone as a municipal necessity 
was evidenced iu the passing of The Ontario Telephone Act 

in 1!)12. which Rives municipalities authority to construct, 
maintain, ati<l operate telephone systems, and to purchase,' 
expropriate, or lease any telephone system already establish- 
ed. Previous to this, three proRrcssive western towns — Port 
Arthur. Fort William, and Kenora— profitinc bv the experi- 
ence of their sister municipalities in the cast, had, under the 
authority of special k-Rislation. successfully solved the problem 
of telephone inanaRcmcnt. Some fifly-eiRht townships have 
taken advantaRe of the Act of 1012 and are now developinR 
telephone systems. The Province Rcnerally is .served by the 
Hell fouipany, while in rural districts co-oper.-.tivc companies 
or lints under indiviihial manaRement have been in favor, the 
Irnnli line service for lunR distance bcim- supplied throuRh 
connection with the exchanRcs of the larRer company. 

Transportation facilities arc also included in the list of 
pnhlir utililies. l-.icht electric r.iiUvay systems are owned by 
ni"iiri|,alilies. one of which is operated by a conip.any tmder 
se. In adflition to these, conlrollinR interests in steam 
I. ays have been assumed at different limes, and while two 
cities have retained their interests, the roads are operated 
nnder lease by one of the larger companies. 

The municipalities of the Province \n\c been liberal in 
llicir Rrants to assist in the construction of railways, over 
ten million ilollars havinc been voted since Confederation, an 
limonnt creatcr than has been paid in Provincial .subsidies. 

Hydro Electric Power— The development of electrical 
cncrRy at XiaRara palls for commercial purposes attracted 
lonsiderable attention, and in iyo:t the Provincial Govern- 
ment passed an Act anthoriziiiR municipal corporations 
to co-operate to secure "the acquisition, construction, main- 
tenance, anil operation of all necessary works, plants, mach- 
inery, and appliances for the development , generation, 
transmission, distribution, and supply of electrical or 
other power for their own corporate use, as well as 
for public uses and purposes." The municipalities co- 
operatinR were to appoint commissioners and an electrical 
ciiRincer to report on the matter. Under this Act, 
the municipalities of Toionto, London, Brantford, Stratford, 
Woodstock, TuRcrsoll. and Giielph arrauRcd for the appoint- 
ment of a commission consistinR of C. W. B. Snider, of St. 
lacobs; P. W. Ellis, of Toronto; W. F. Cockshutt, of 
Brantford; R. A. Fessenden, electrical engineer of Washing- 
ton; and the Hon, Adam Beck, Ross and HolRate, of 
.Montreal, were appointed to investigate the engineering 
aspect of the question. This commission reported in March, 
IfOfi. to the municipalities concerned. The report stated 
that eleven other iimnicipalities were interested, and that to 
all eighteen municipalities, which included St. Thomas on the 

west and Toronto on the cast, the transmission of power 
from Niagara Fnlls could be made under tlie most advantag- 
eous conditions. 

In llic matter of the development of industrial possibili- 
ties the commission were enthusiastic; 

"The municipalities represented by your commission- 
ers arc pre-eminently manufacturing and industrial 
communities. They are equipped by nature to excel. 
They enjoy a hii;Ii dcRree of proficiency in the manutac- 
turing arts. The overflow of their aggressive and 
self-reliant enterprise has pushed their products into 
many lands. The harriers of cheap labor and other 
natural rondilions which might have kept them out, have 
been overcome. From the greatest economic leverage 
that .Niagara power — unloaded by corporation tribute — 
will give, an incalculable stimulus to the productive and 
rnmpctilive efliciency and enterprise of their manufac- 
tures will be derived. The economic conditions will not 
only, in obedience to natural law, beget an increasing 
activity, but they will also attract to the district the 
enterprise of others. As a result, therefore, of such 
development as is herein considered, a great stimulus to 
the manufacturing activity may confidently be expected. 
If, however, all the municipalities that arc capable of 
being efficiently served by a Niagara Falls development 
were to combine and carry out an undertaking corres- 
ponding to their needs and prospects, it would exercise 
an influence upon their future that cannot be estimated, 
and that the past industrial history of Ontario aitords no 
parallel to." 

The Ontario Government in the meantime had appointed 
an official commission of inquiry, of which the Hon. Adam 
Beck was the chairman, and in 1906 an Act was passed to 
provide for the transmission of electrical power to munici- 
Jjalitics. This determined that the policy of the Government 
would he to erect transmission lines and deliv r power, the 
municipalities to assume the whole of the expense under 
agreements to pay a fixed sum per horse-power per year, to 
be re<hiced as the consumption on the various transmission 
lines increased. The management of the undertaking was to 
be in charge of a commission of three, under the name of The 
Hydro- Electric Power Commission of Ontario. 

This commission issued three reports during 1906, and as 
all of these favored the idea of securing electrical energy from 
power generated at Niagara Falls and at other points in the 
Province, it is not surprising that a number of meetings were 
held by representatives of municipalities interested, for the 
put pose of securing the fullest information. The result was 


the formation of the Western Ontario Municipal Power 
Union, the object of which was to secure the co-operation of 
all municipalities in obtaining the purchase and transmission 
of electrical power. 

In January, 1907, propositions for the supply of electrical 
power were submitted to the ratepayers of seventeen of the 
chief industrial centres, all of which gave a substantial 
majorily in favor of cheaper power. The commission has 
arranged lo supply nuinicipalilics as far west as Windsor, a 
distance of two hundred and fifty miles; and as fast as 
sufficient consumers can be secured to warrant the erection 
of additional transmission lines, municipalities desiring 
power within that radius of NiaRara Falls will receive atten- 
tion. Arrangements are also being made to secure power at 
points in the eastern and northern sections of Ontario, so 
that the whole Province may be supplied, and where this 
cannot be procured the comniissi-.n will undertake its 

The necessity for uniformity of installation and equip- 
ment resulted in the adoption by the commission of 
regulations to which all municipalities using hydro-electric 
power are required to conform. The commission was also 
authorized to make regulations pertaining to the installation 
and use of electrical power by all nuinicipalities, companies, 
or individuals, and order such changes as in their opinion may 
be necessary for tlic safety of the public or workmen or for 
the protection of property against fire or otherwise. 

The rates chargeable by a municipal corporation, 
company, or individual for the supply of electrical power or 
energy are now subject to the approval and control of the 
power commission, which also prescribes the system in which 
the books and accounts of municipal corporations or commis- 
sions shall be kept. Provision is also made for the appoint- 
ment of inspectors to enforce the regulations. 

Under an Act respecting the public constuction and 
operation of electric railways passed in 1913, municipalities 
may arrange with the power commission for the location, 
construction, equipment, and management of lines of electric 
railways. Another Act passed in the same year authorizes 
the election of one or more public utility commissions, with 
all the powers, rights, and privileges of municipal corpora- 
tions, and makes the election of such a commission compul- 
sory in alt cities and towns that have entered into a contract 
with The Hydro-Electric Power Commission. These 
commissions are to consist of three or five members, of whom 
the head of the council is a member ex-offico— one-half of 
the elective members to retire annually. 

This summarizes the development that has atteniled the 
mtroduction of the municipal ownership idea in Ontario 
The future success of these underlakincs will depend on the 
men who direct and control :hem. Given public men, with 
hiKh ideals of municipal manaBcment, with broad and compre- 
hensive views, with business traininc the municipal move- 
ment will continue in its prosperous career and will justify 
the conclusions lone aco arrived at: namelv, that all those 
undertakincs which are in the nature of necessities or 
monopolies and require the use of public streets should be 
owned and operated by the municipalities in the interest of 
the public generally. 

Municipal Boards and Commissions 

?"« of the special features of the development of 
mumc, , ,„ ,„, ,„ „,^„ ,„„„,„„;,„ i, , "JTIipii 

cauon of c„™„,„„o„s. The meml.ers of eouncils are 'o, 
remunerated although they devote considerable time to 
mn,-.Pj.l dnt,e. Ordinary municipal organization h^ no" 
al«a>s been sufficient to attend to details of every phase o 
devclopmen, m towns and cities, the result beinr ha 
pec " : ds" r ''"■" '""■' '■"" '° ''"" .ransfefred to 
e ther appointed or elected with terms of office so arranj,! 
that only a portion of the members retire annually. 

Water and Light Contmissions.-The manairement of 

"n,l.r,,,k,.„ by a of the council, or these duties 

may be transferred by by-law, assented to by the elector, o 

•e nnm.cipality, ,u a commission consistin/o no less than 

connc, shall, cK-oflic,„, be one. and the remainder shall be 
elec e,l annn.illy, at the same time and in the same mann r 7, 
is a 'tno i! ,"■; '""""' '''"'" - -"">■ -curs, the co ci 
he " „H '";""' " """"'"i"""' '" l><='<' offi" <l"rinK 
appo r T, J'"^ '";"/" "'"'^'' '"' P"<locessor was 
appoint,,!. The duly of the commissioners is to rennrf 
ann ,v to the council, and make application to tl^it bo 

ate c ,1 ,e7T''" h'J""'^" '" '""' "°"<- ■"" -n.s and 
rates collrcted. less disbursements, shall, quarterly or as lh„ 
counc, ,n:,y direct, be paid over by the commil^ oner " 
m„n,c,pal treasurer for the credit of the separate Xj!;: 

Public Libr.ries._In cities, towns, and villaees, councils 
ment of a public library. When the by-law ha, been 

rrar;""d""""' '"'"''""""■ --'»■"'"■ '"' -"— "" 

the library and rooms in connection therewith shall be vested 
.n and exercised by the public library board, to be composed 
of th mayor of the city or town or the reeve of the village 
and three other persons appointed by the council, three 
appointed by the public school board, and two appointed by 
the separate school board, where one exists. The members 
appomted hold office lor three or two years, and XL 
rotation Members of the appointing committee are not 
eligible for appointment as members of the board. For the 

purpose of providinB for lilt «pen,f« of the bourd, the coun- 
cil .. rcqmrcl ,o levy a special rate not exceeding one-half 
n-.ll on the dollar for public library p„ . „,„. In citie. of 
over one hundred lhon,and, the rate i, ,.cd to one-quarter 
"1 a mill. If additional money h required the board makes 
apphralion to the council, which may cram it on a two-thirds 
vote of the incnibers. or the question may be submitted to a 
vote of the electors. 

Park Board..— Councils of municipalities may establish 
,. r '^'l''"',', ','"'"■ ■■""' '' •■■ ""!°'''y of the ratepayers so 
•lecde The I ublio I'arks .Act may be adopted, after which the 
Kencral mauacnunt, rcRulalion, and control of all exislinc 
parks and avenues, and all properties, boll, real and personal 
applicable to the maintenance of parks bclonKinu to the 
mnnic,p,ali,.v^shall he vested in and exercised by a board to be 
< ailed the lioard of Park Manasement, the board to be 
composed of the mayor of the city or town or reeve of the 
villaEc or township, and six other persons, who shall be 
residents of the municipality but not members of the council 
to be appointed by the council on the nomination of the' 
mayor or reeve, the members to hold office for three year, 
and to retire in rotation. The park board has the power to 
acquire, by purchase, lease, or otherwise, the lands, richts 
and privilcBcs needful for park purposes. The board is 
required to report annually to the council, and submit an 
estimate of their requirements. I, is the duty of the council 
to levy annually a rate of one-half mill on the dollar for the 
expenses of > board, and to raise by debenture, sums 
required for , ,e purpose of purchasinR lands and privileses 
necessary for park purposes. 

Police Coinmis.iona.-In all cities, control of the police 
loree is in the hands of the mayor, county judge, and police 
masistrate. In towns and villages, control of the police 
force IS the duty of the council. In every town having a 
police magistrate, the council may constitute a board of police 
commissioners as in cities, but the council of the town may at 
any time by by-law, dissolve and put an end to the board and 
assume their duties. In addition to the management of the 
police force in cities, these board license and regulate second- 
hand and junk shops, livery stables, cabs, etc., and also 
suiiervise and issue licenses and permits to auctioneers 
bill-poster., places of amusement, ferries, hawkers and 
pedlars. Intelligence offices, milk vendors, plumbers, electrical 
workers, transient traders, and meeting-houses 


Ontario Railway and Municipal Board 

When in J900 it was announced that llle Provincial 
l,ovcrnnu-nt l,a,l docidcd to appoinl a Railway and Municipal 
Board to lake tlic plac-: of tl.c Hallway Committee of the 
I'.seculivc (ouniil, it met with Kcneral approval For --,me 
year, previons the matter had been susKc.ted in a Fe.,eral 
way ,n and out of the I.eKisIalnre by those who were in favor 
of an oriranualion similar to the Local Hovernment Board of 
huKland. While the boar.l was not promoted to bring Ihi. 
about, su!,se,juent .Icvclopment has shown that it may 
"llMuately he h.oke.l to for an evpert supervision of n,u„i, i,nl 
act.v.lies. The board, which has the powe-s of a Court of 
Keeord, is composed of three members, appointed by the 
l..e.,tenant.Governor, who hold ofSce duriuR pleasure, one of 
whom „ desiBnaled as chairman. It is evidently intended 
that the chairman shall be a lawyer, as his opinion on a 
<iUestion of law prevails. 

The l.oanl has all the powers vested in it by The Railway 
.\ct of Hior,, which includes the approval of location 
•■omplclion, ctiuipment of railways, and adjustment of employees. The only appeal allowed from the 
board IS as to jurisdiction or upon a question of law The 
.Vssessment Act requires appeals from Court of Revision to 
be ma.le to ,1,0 board when larpe amounts are involved 
I nder 1 he Municipal Act, bylaws for the alteration of 
boundaries or annexation to a city or town may be submitted 
to the board for approval, and by-laws relatiuR to finance 
debentures, etc. and public utilities may be confirmed! 
lelcBraph, telephone, and electric liRht, heat, and power 
companies were required to adopt the board's orders as to 
installation and equipment for safety of life and property a 
responsibility that has now been assumed by the Hydro- 
I.lectric Commission. The board may be required to report 
on proposed chanRcs in the railway law and private Acts 
relatiUK to municipal corporations or r.iilwavs. It may also 
superintend the book-kccplne; of public utilities and require 
annual returns and statements. In cases of disputes between 
the management and railway employees, the board may 
arbitrate and endeavor to settle the same. The board was 
also authorized to fi., the standard of construction and 
installation of municipal telephone systems. This was the 
proKrammc set for the board when the members entered upon 
l.ieir duties, and it is not surprising that they have found a 
considerable staff of assistants necessary, including street 
railway and telephone experts. 



1 I 

Tht dune, and r«pon.ibililiM of the board have bttt, 
con.tanly,„crca.,ni, and every year new matter, are referred 

,T^ '''"*"^.*'' P""-!'' "'■"««'. *h«her too high or too low 
U '''*;'■••'"""■ ■=>»' <" operation, and n>aintenan«. to 
^ 5 T,. .', """">"""' -' ""= "r. of .treet railway., and 
und r The Municipal Securitie. A.,, to certify to the va idi.y 

eLn^^K ",• ■"","'""."' ■'''""""- " ha. authority to 
"tend the for the i„ue of debenture, and approve of 
by-law. changing the rate, of intere.t on the.e .ecuritie. 

b,^n 'IT'T''- ;°"": ""'' ""'" °' '""' "il">y have 
been placed wlhin ,„ jurisdiction, as have all matter, 
pertaining to telephone companies, their in.talla'ion, rate, 
and ■•"hange of husiness. When local improvement,, costing 
over fifty thousand dollars are objected ,o, an appeal may be 
mad. to the board. Under The Survey and Plans Act, phn! 
of sub. division, within five miles of cities of hfty thousand 
popuhiion arc subject to its approval. 

The Legislature has connected the board with so many 
matter, „„ce i, was organized thnt in publishing a list of 
he several Act, under which i, „erci,c, jurisdiction, the 
rriZ,"" "T "■" "O",""^'^- "The above li.t i, prepared to 
fac.hta c reference to legislation, and doe, not purport to be 

The annual repo, of the board give full particulars of 
their decisions and ...n.plele statisiic, of the public utility 
•ind other similar corporation, of the Province. Up to the 
end of the year 1»,.,, ,,,,, ,o„„.,, applications had been made 
to the board. The amount of revenue collected in law stamp 
on onlers made by the board indicates in a general way the 
llTr7"ZTr °' "'" '""'''■ '" '»<"' 'he amount was 

The M ■ ; f ■■ ■'" ""■ *'•■"'• '" ■'"• »"■"•'■ Under 
Jhe Municipal Securities Act, debentures aggregating over 
$11,000,000 have been validated since 1908. 

The chairman of the board is paid an annual salary of 
SIX thousand nme hundred dollars, and the associate members 
four thousand dollars each. The total expense, of the board 
and Its stad is a charge on the railway mileage tax collected 
by the Province under the provisions of The Corporations 

Highway Improvement 

The maintenance of highways it alwayi an important 
question in a growing community. Toll road companiei, 
statute labor, county and local municipal corporations were 
the source formerly depended upon for the betterment of all 
the highways of the Province, The tendencies of Provincial 
legislation have always been in favor of equalization by 
gradually pl:icing more of the responsibiUty on the counties 
for the construction and maintenance of bridges and such 
roads as they would assume. Many of the toll roads, when 
made free, became county roads. 

There was for years a spirit of unrest in connection with 
the adniiniitralion of the statute labor law and a general 
agitation for I.irgcr expenditures for the improvement of 
highways. This resulted in the organization of the Ontario 
Good Roads Association in 1894, which had for its guiding 
spirit the late Andrew Pattullo, then editor of the Sentinel- 
Review, of Woodstock, and afterwards member of the 
Legislature. A caniiuign of education was inaugurated 
Farmers' Institute spcakirs were designated to introduce the 
question, and public mcilings held in different parts of the 
Province. So numerous were the demands on the resources 
of the association that the Government, at its request in 1856 
appointed A. VV. Campbell, C.E., as Provincial Highway 

Campbell had made a study of the question from both a 
technical and popular point of view, and under his direction 
public interest became more active. The press of the Province 
was of the greatest assistance, and public meetings were held 
in a majority of the municipalities. The statute labor system 
was attacked, and the use of machinery especially adapted to 
the construction and improvement of roads was advocated. In 
the eastern counties a good-roads train, with the most 
improved machinery, in charge of James Sheppard, of 
Queenston, assisted by giving practical demons rations in the 
modern methods of road-making. 

In 1900, after six years' work, many of the townships had 
abolished statute labor, and road graders and other machinery 
were coming into use. The result, however, was far from 
satisfactory. Pattullo. who was then a member of the 
Legislature, took up the question with his ever-increasing 
interest and enthusiasm. 

Highway Improvement Act — In 1901 The Highway 
Improvement Act was passed, providing for a Provincial 

approprittion of one million ilollari lo iiilit lh« organlted 
conntlfi In tin work o( road improvcmrnt, lo the extent of 
nne-tliir<l of their expenditures under the proviiioni of th> 
Art. Tlii. fum, which looked large, wai to be divided on the 
Ijairi of acreage, and on the averaue provided for SJllono for 
earli county. It was not expectcl ihi, crant would 
vilvc the problem lo a Kro.ntcr extent llian lo inlerrst rounty 
authorities In the ronslriirtion of mo.lel highways of a better 
class, and tbrouch Iheni. lo educate the people up to the 
bcnrfils to be derived from llie expenditures necessary lo 
secure belter roads. In working out the Ad. this fact 
■ ipprars to have been lost sight of. The important ipie-lion 
with llie rounty councillors was always the desisnalion of 
UKi'U for iiuprovcnicnt within their particular municipality. 
In most cases Hie road milcacc assumed wa . too large. The 
cost of maintenance was often overlooked, and ii now an 
miltorlaut <|Urstion. 

When Tlic Ilicbw.iy Improvement Act was passed, eounly 
roads were lo be found in Ilastines and WellinBlon as a 
result of the abolition of tolls in preiious vears. These 
counties b.ave since received souic considecilion towards 
placinc them in the same position as others in reference to 
their road expenditures. 

The results of twenty-one years of development of the 
movement for better roads may be said to be evidenced: in 
the abolition of statute labor in many townships; the a.loplion 
of The Highway Improvement Act in twenlv counties, in 
which :i,771 miles of bighway were assumed for improvement; 
•be expenditure of $6,000,000 in the improvement of county 
roads, one-third of which was paid by the Province; the sec- 
ond million dollars for the purpose of the Highway Improve- 
ment Act appropriated by the Province in 1912, has been 
expended and it will be necessary for the Legislature to 
grant a further sum at the next session of the House. 

It is not possible to say how many miles of the roads 
assumed have been improved. Experimental work was 
necessary before county authorities appreciated fully the 
problems they were endeavoring to solve. In many cases 
the initial work done was temporary, and at the present time 
can hardly be classified as satisfactory construction. A 
considerable sum has been expended on bridges, machinery 
and grants to villages and towns. The County of York and 
the City of Toronto are jointly interested with the Province 
in a special arrangement for the improvement of the 
principal roads leading into the city. The York highway 
cummission is doing the best and most expensive work yet 
undertaken. Its experience will be of the greatest benefit in 
years to come, as the question of subsequent maintenance 

which i. not provided tor in th. Hi,hw>y Improv.m.n. Ac., 
Xir'"' ' '"""''""' '" "" •""' "•< o' '•>• ro.di in in 

m. ITov dod tor a„ iippropriation o( (i,c nnllioi, dollar! to 
bo tx,,i„dcd .,. llic con.iruclion of roadl In Ihc northern 
.lutnot. „t thcl.rovinc and for th. con.truction by i; 
Irov ncc », cacl, county of .ample or experimental road, of 
a more e,pen„ve cl,,s« than th. .ounlie. have undertaken 
■oncrete being used >o a con.iderable extent on all of "'em 

Following up it, deci.ion to expend a large amount in 
'h. tmprovement of highway, in the di.tricl., the I-rovincil" 
Government took into con.ideration the need, of the org nii 
«d .ectton, of the I'rovince. The increa.e in the u.e of 
motor vehicle, and the eilcc. of that traffic, together "' h n ,;,.,i,e ,„r h,„„ ^f^,, than were bing 

con.tructed, led up to an announcement of the Governme. "! 
ntenfon to expend upward, of ten million dol arT to 
"ghway .mprovcmen, and the appointment of a commi..'„„ 
•o prepare a plan of road con., ,,ction for the IWc. 

„„J,^A """" "' "" C""-™'"'"" pre.ented in 1014 recon- 

The c.tablishn.cnt of a Provincial Highway department 

CVne'er " °' "" '^"'^•'' " ''""■'^■»'i"-'" -<l cTi"' 

The continuence of County road con.truction under the 
provision, of the Highway Improvement Act. 

The classification of County road, in accordance will- 
the functions performed. 


Suburban in districts surrounding cities. 

Interurban, hclwcen centres of population. 

The increase of frovincial aid for construction and ad- 
dilional aid for maintenance as follows; 

Classification Construction Maintenance 

„ , County City Prov. County City Prov 

J""', 6»'; 40% 60% 40% 

?"'""■''"" M'" MS 40% 3354% 331i%3:,!S% 

'"'""''"'" 33!i% 66%% 60% 40 

Plans for the Mnprovcmcnl of Township roads includ- 
ing the establishment of a proper organisation in each in 
Charge of a competent foreman appointed by the council 
and the election of members of township councils for more 
than one year. 

The higher taxai.on of motor vehicles. 

Following thU report the I.e(iilfttiirc in 1918, incrHicd 
the perrentaire of Provincial aid under the Hlshway Im- 
prnvenicMl Act to forty per cent, and paifcd the Ontario 
Highwayi Act. providing: (1) for a Department of Public 
HiRliways; C') for I'r<j%iiirial aid to the extent of twenty 
per rent, of the co»t of maintaining County roaili: (.i) for 
rnrmiragiiiK townshipi to appoint a townn'-.ip overieer flf 
foreman by pa>ing twenty-five per cent of hi* talary: (4) 
for Ihr appnintmrnl of cnnimis«ionerii to ilmiRtiate and ilcfinc 
the siibiirhan roads towards wlijrh cities and separate towns 
may bt- reqiiire.l to contrihulr: (.'.) for ihc improvement 
of conncctinR links of main or county roadB throiigh villages: 
(6) for the rortttruction of main roads when three-fourths 
of the timnicipalities interested petition therefor and for the 
appointment of a Hoard of Trustees to take charge of the 
conitruction and maintenance thereof, the Province lo pay 
forty per cint, of cost np to $4,000 per mile. 

This Act. or any portion thereof, i> not in force but may 
become law at any time by proclamation of the Lieutenant- 

The Local Improvement ^yitem 

Tlir prinfiplr upon wliirli onltnary muniripal taxci art 
n*»t»%cti and levied U that which wa« laid down in irTfl by 
Adam Srintli, \\r.: that "the luhjccu of every itate ouRht lo 
umirihtilf In thi- expense of the Govrrnmrnl at nr irly as 
IomiI)|i' in proportion i<i ihrir mprctivr al)iliti*-s The 
AMfsnnunt Act pro\;<Icd that all municipal taxes slial! be 
levied i(|nally upon thi* whole ratablt- property, real and 
pir*.inal, ill a nuiniiipality, arforrlinu to the assessed value 
■ if Mirh properly. This, however, did not include rates or 
taxen paid under the local improvement lyitem, the funda- 
nieiilal prinriple of which h: "The riffht of the local 
aiilhority to asiess and levy ii[>on the ownrrs of real estate 
Bperiaily benefited by the conRtriiction of a local work, a 
share at least of the benefit thus conferred." 

The foundation of the local improvement procedure in 
f)nlario was adopted in the Act of M.l'J; from that date to 
)SHL\ benefit was the only criterion of assessability. In the 
latter year, locality became in certain cases the list, the rates 
beinff imitosed "upon the real property frontiiiR or abuttinR 
upon the street or place whereon or wherein the work was 
done"; and in inm this rule was made applicable in all cases. 
In 1«H.- this was chaoKcd so that property benefited might 
he included in assessment for the cost of bridges, culverts, 
rnihanknients, or the openinR up or extension of streets. In 
ISSH llie restriction ui the nssessi;irnt tf. ahuttinp propcty 
was removed in the case oi sewers of larjic capacity. In 
ISOfi the principle of benefit as in force prior to 1882 was 
again adopted. 

Alterations have been made in the method of apportion- 
ing the amount lo be assessed. Hy the Art of 18B8, a rite on 
assessed vaUies, exclusive of improvements, was the only one 
authorized. In 1881 a further cliange was made, by which 
the respective frontages ()f the lots determined the sum to be 
levied. This is the fjeneral principle of the present law. 

In ISSfi the only method of initiating a local improvement 
work was by petition. In 1871 councils were authorized to 
initiate the work when they were prepared to pay one-half 
the cost. In ISMO this liability was removed, provided the 
local improvement system liad been adopted by general 
by-law. In 1890 the initiation of work for sanitary reasons 
was permitted, when recommended by the local board of 

li I, Lp lo 1808 the local improv.n,.,,, sections were 
appl.caWc to cities only. In that year they were ex°ende7to 
towns, to villages in .871, and to townships ^nilsT 

sewcts%Tw',f''' "';'" '" ""■'"'>■'- -'- first limited to 
sewer,, s,de«alks, an,l street improvement, swccplnu and 
watennc. In ,871 bridges were included, in 1880 the deepen 
.nB of streams and drainage work, in 1890 culvers and 
embankments and in 18»3 water and light mains. TO, 
ft IP 'c..l 7 7 •"""'•""^^ improvements is a popular one; 
.t appcls to ratepayers destrons of bettering the condition 
of tbe.r surroundings. I, has been adopted in nearly al h ronditions exist. 

There is considerable variation in the proportion of the 
cos , ,f any, assumed by the municipality. In some, the 
pro,,or,y froutmg on the work pays the whole cos • i, 
°I st'recn!,.""'"'';!'" "r"""" ■■■ -"""••-Se, and constructs 

on corn TJ .T" ""'' •■' ''°"'°" "' "■= """i- '■■'""=«'= 
on CO ne lots. 1 hese particulars, which apply ,o the whole 
mnntcpahty, should be finally determined by bylaw beo e 
local .mprovement works are undertaken. 

rower to construct a work on a two-thirds vote of the 

o fin d"r '?',"".","" '" "™ '" - "'y only, and wa 
confi„,d to pl„„k s.dewalks. In ,901 was extended to 

dewalk of p ank, gravel, cinders, or a combination with tar 
ad sand; ,n the o lowing year sidewalks of cement, concrete, 

-eluded, and the necessary vote changed lo two-thirds of 

let embers of a council present at a regular meeting. In 

IJ 1 the power was extended to include a curbing, pavement 

stdewalk, hedge, and the opening, widening, extending grad-' 

ing, d.vcrtmg, or otherwise improving a street. 

Generally speaking, the systeu, has found favor 
Councls take advantage of i, ,o undertake works that are 
.lestrable ■„ the public interest. In the case of expensive 
work, parttes ob, to the action of the council .nay 

Mu7ic;::iB:rrd: '°""'"'' '^ "■= °"'"'° "-"-^ -^ 

Public He- 'th 

In 1849 a ccnlral board of hea ;- was established by the 
Parhamen.s of Upper and Lc ■ ,., c.„-. vin , „„. the first regttla- 
t.ons issued from Montreal in of that yea. , , eonnection the suppression of a >i.„Vnt epiden.'.- of cholera. 
When the epidemic subside., tlu: rertral 1, ,ard remained 
inactive until 18C6. when the . v;:.. ■ .irned, and an Act 
was passed to continue in force in Upper Canada the regul.- 
tions issued from Montreal. These were enforced by , 
central board at the scat of Government in Ottawa. 

In 187.) and 1877 the Provincial LcRisIaturc passed Acts 
respcctins the public health, in uhici, provision was made for 
a 1 ravincial board, and member, of council, were designated 
health ofScers. In some case, of epidemics the Lieutenant- 
Governor could, by proclamation, require a council to 
appoint a board of health consisting of three persons. Very 
ittle mlerct was taken in this lesislation, and seven years 
later a new .Xct was passed requiring council, to appoint 
boards of health annually. These were to be composed .f 
the reeve, clerk, and three r.ucpayer, in townships, villages 
and towns under four thousand population, and of the mayors' 
and eight ratepayers in the larger towns and cities The 
appointment of medical health officer, and sanitary inspectors 
was not compulsory. In the following vcar, 18S5, a council 
was required to appoint a medical health officer when so 
requested hy the Provincial board. Ten years later the 
members ,n cities and towns were reduced to six, and contin- 
uity of procedure in boards of health was ensured by requiring 
one-third of the appointed members to retire annually The 
powers of the Provincial board were extended to the'super- 
v.sion and approval of plans for waterworks and sewers 
Although medical health officers and sanitary inspectors were 
included in the organization of the local boards in most of 
the municipalities, their appointment was not made 
compulsory until 1911. 

In 1912, owing to the growing interest in public health 
matters, a new Act was found to be necessary. This changed 
the constitution of the local boards of the larger towns and 
cities to the mayor, medical health officer, and three ratepay- 
ers, and in all other raunicipaUtie, one ratepayer The 
necessity for central control or supervision was emphasized 
by providing for the appointment of seven medical officers of 
health to devote their whole time to supervising the sanitary 
work of the respective districts into which the Province was 

pitt, « '"^.''■1<1"»«"S of these officers are: London, 

ol^, ,r r": ^''"' ""^ ""'"'°" of "'^ '"o 'or New 
be paid by t ,e groups of counties in each district. The 
n.c.l,>nl health oftlc.r is a metnber and the chief executive 
officer of the local board. With a view to having some 

d stntsscd except for cause, and with the approval of the 
■rov,nc,al board Atnong other things, the Act requires tha 
th .ndiKen. s,ck and injured n,ust be cared for by the municl 

.": 'hi'sl.' " T,' "",'7' ""'"' '" ""■" ^ -'-y' '- ="'""<" 

t, tifi. . ' ■"'""°" °' "'"■■"■"icable disease, 

noffi at.on, quarantine, and disinfection, is specially deal 

no ihcalton of tuberculosis is required. The question of 

.ttent.on. Prov.K.on ,s „,ade for the inspection of lodging- 
house , and the a,r space required for occupants is raised 
tron, f„„ hundred to si. hundred cubic fee. The ntedieal 
hca th ofiuer „ authorued to clo.,c and placard a ho.tse unfit 
or hab,,a„on. The supervision of water supply and se^g 
disposal ,s eont.nued, and the care of ice supplies and 
inspection of meat is fully dealt with. 

The Vaccination Act provides that infants shall be 
vaccmaed w.thin three months, and all residents when 

S'lre ' """""'"''"'■ ""'"^ «-■ h^tve been vaccina, d 
»itnii} seven years. 

binedwUh"^',"'" ?"T °' ■"""" "«'"" ■" h"'"'. com- 
bmed with .ndependent local health officers, a good deal of 
.mprovement .„ the sanitary condition of the'province is 

Municipal Legislaion 

Municipal councils exercise aiitliority by virliie of the 
powers conferred in the BCnerat rrovineial laws, which in 
Ontario are larRely an expansion of the principles laid down 
in the Municipal (Baldwin) Act of 1849. The result of such 
restriction is that municipalities often apply to the '.egisla- 
tnrc for consideration or authority to exercise special powers 
Hiese applications result in what are known as '■Private 
Bills, relalMig to almost every phase of municipal progress 
and misii: i.aBement, large numbers of which are passed at 
each session. 

Special legislation in the interests of large cities may also 
be found in the general Acts, framed so as to apply in future 
to other corporations, which may, by tlie growth of popula- 
tion, come within their application. This very often provides 
for nothing more than the old problems of local government 
so inlensihed in cities that they become essentially new 

Notwithstanding the large amount of municipal legisla- 
tion and the care with which it is enacted, every session of 
the Legislature produces some new development calculated to 
improve the best system of local government. 

Entertainment and Publicity 

The traditions of the past were somewhat disturbed in 
1891, when expenditures by cities for the entertainment of 
distinguished guests were authorized, and again in 1897, when 
the commercial tendencies of municipalities were recognized 
by providing for the expense of diffusing information 
respecting the advantages of a municipality as a manufactur- 
ing, busi;iess, educational, or residential centre, or holiday 
resort. This led to considerable competition between the 
cities and towns, with a view to industrial expansion, and 
publicity departments established in the larger cities are now 
presided over by a commissioner of industries. 

The active campaign for settlers in the north-west 
provinces, fostered by land companies and the Canadian 
Immigration Department, had an ever-decreasing effect on 
population aid land values in the rural districts. Lambton 
was the first county to recognize the necessity for the 
adoption of modern metliods, by the formation in 1910 of a 
county publicity association for the purpose of diffusing 
information respecting its advantages as an agricultural 
centre. The Legislature approved of this, and authorized 
special grarts to the extent of one-third of county expendi- 
tures for this purpose. A large number of counties are 
already organized, and their efforts are having the desired 
effect on land values and the system of selecting and 
distributing immigrants. 

The system of placing trained experts, representatives of 
the Agricultural Department, in each county to assist in the 
introduction of improved methods of farming, fruit-raising, 
etc., nas been well received. County councils are required to 
contribute a portion of the expense. This co-operation, 
combined with the pwakening that is sure to result from 
publicity campaigns already inaugi'rated, should bring about 
conditions most beneficial to ru'-al communitiis as soon as 
the war is over. 

The Bonus System 

'"'»»*■ '""ndls wert authorized to bonuj manufacturing 
.n.u,tr,„ ,„ ,h, extent of exemption from taxation for ten 
years. I hree years later they received permission to grant a 
bonus when a by-law was approved by ratepayers on a 
wn.fif.hs vote. This i„,roduced a system of what has been 
ailed rnmous competition" between the cities and town, of 
lie f rov.nce or tnduslries, which were peddled around in 
. r.lcr to eet the romnetins; communities to bid against one 
..nother t-ive years experience was sufficient, and in 1892 
the Act was repealed. After this, the only inducement a 
matlon^rf- "!': " "-'"'"-" -- cLmption frlm 
it, Z . "°' "■,"" ""^ "■"" =""''"i°- "■"nicipali- 

o, id »" "•""■^'l tl.»l by mean, of special Acts they 

forme ly. This was a practical evasion of the general law 
The old system, which had been abolished by reason of the 
n a y ev, s attached to i,. wa, found to have been better than 
that of placing the responsibility on the Legislature. 

In 1900 the bonus sections were re-enacted, and by-laws 
reunder were required to be assented to by two-thirds of 

tlLT7? """."' '° "'"'■ "' ">■"= ""'y °"=-fif"> voted 
agamsi a by-law, a three fifths majority was sufficient. These 
ecttons are a. present in force, but the by-laws recud e 
t7Z7 , f "-'"""- of the members of the council 
and two- birds of the votes cast. No bonus can be granted 
when a similar industry is located in a municipality, or to a 
busmess that is located elsewhere in the Province The 

cities and towns. T .. bonus idea is giving way in favor of 
loans to manufacturers for a term of years. This is better 
Irom an economic point of view. 

Care of the Poor 

The rare of the poor in Ontario has always devolved upon 
citizens who arc charitably disposed, and upon the municipal 
authorities, In sonic of the larRcr urban communities, 
vountary orRaniiations devote their enefRies to outside relief 
and care of tlie unfortunate in institutions of various kinds, 
some of which are supported by municipal Rrants and grants 
from the Provincial Treasurer, apportioned on a per diem 
basis. The number of ins. tutions of this class has increased 
from thirty-eiRlit in 1877 tc two hundred and thirty-four in 
1914, classified as follows, namely: one public and sixty- 
eight private hospitals, thirty-ciRht refuges, thirty-two or- 
phanages, three homes for incu rallies, two convalescent 
homes, two Magdalen asylums, and twelve sanatoria for con- 
sumptives. The cost of maintenance of patients in hos- 
pitals, when they arc unnble to pay, is charged to the mun- 
icipality to which they belonir. 

In rural districts, the care of the poor was originally the 
duty of the councils of the local nutnicipalitirs, and consider- 
able sums were expended on outdoor relief. This has been 
largely assumed by the county councils, tlirough the establish- 
ment of houses of industry and refuge. 

Houiet of Industry.— Previous to Confederation, the 
Icfiislative authorities derided that the helpless and friendless 
poor should be provided for by indoor relief in industrial 

The Act of 1860 was mandatory in tone, a limit of two 
years being allowed within wliich county councils were to 
secure land, build houses of industry, make regulations, 
appoint officers, and providi \or the maintenance of the 
institutions. One of tlic first Acts of the Legislature of 
Ontario after Confederation was to make the establishment of 
these institutions optional. In 18S8. a general Act for their 
establishment was authorized, and in 1890 they were encour- 
aged by Provincial grants to the extent of four thousand 
dollars each, but not to exceed one-quarter of the amount 
actually expended by the counties in the purchase ol land and 
erection of houses of industry thereon. Provision was also 
made for inspection of houses of industry by the Provincial 
Inspector of Asylums and Public Charities. 

In 1903, the Legislature made it compulsory for counties 
to erect h^iuses of industry, either separately or in conjunction 
with adjoining counties. There are at present thirty-two 
houses of inaustry in the Province, with farms of from forty- 

five to one luindrc<l acrci nttachect. The largeit number of 
inmatrs, over one hundred, is to be found in Waterloo, the 
avcruRc beinu fifty-five. 

The exprnditiircs by the municipalitici of the Province 
for the support of the poor ;ind piitdir charities have been 
Browinp; rapidly. 

I8N6 1010 

Cities $ si.Sfie $509,33.1 

Countict „ 46,:iL'6 242,104 

VithRes and Towns 34,510 55,771 

Townships 64.916 57,043 

$227,318 $954,451 

The iiirrcasi'S that would uiiturully show u. the expendi- 
tures of villaRi'!), towns, and townsliips arc iiuiudcd in the 
iiniouiit<i paid by counties under the house of industry 

The passinp of the Act rcsptrtinR neglected children and 
children's :Lid societies made counties aiid cities in which 
the children last resided for onv year, responsible for their 
maiiilctiancr when committed to their care pending investiga- 
tion, or until they are provided with foster homes. These 
societies have been formed in every city . nd county, and are 
doini; splendid w k for the protection of children, and as a 
result, no clii.J ' ■, ■ cen thf ages of two and sixteen years 
has been lepally an inmate of a house of industry since 1895. 
One of tile main objects to these societies is to avoid 
institutionalizing of children. 

The indigent insane are cared for in the Provincial 
asylums when it is danf^crous for them to be at large or 
when it is thought that they may be amenable to treatment. 
Many harmless insane are cared for in houses of industry and 
other institutions, the accumulation of this class of inmates 
is sometimes transferred from the asylums to institutions 
maintained by the municipalities. 

Municipal Accounts and Audits 

Ifp to IHllT tlif accounts of immicipaliticii Rcncrally wer- 
iuicHtcd by two aiiJitors, one of whom was nominated by the 
lirail of the counril. These wcrr annual appoint iiientn. 
Toronto alone had the riRlit to appoint auditors who held 
office durinar pleasure; other cities and towns had authority 
to submit their ariDunts to one auditor, who«e duties were 
rcRulati-d by by-law of the council. There werr many 
irrfRutiiritii* in trcii-urers' accoinit'*. and a Krcat lack of 
unilnrinity in the system of books in which they were kepi. 
The auditinR of accounts was a farce in many municipalities 
In tnany cases, where a special invcstiRation wai held and 
errors or defalcations discovered, the accounts had been 
found correct and certified by the annual auditors. In 1897. 
under the authority uf an Act to make better provision for 
ketpinR and audit iuR municiiJ,.! and school accounrs, a 
Provincial Municipal Auditor was appointed, with authority 
to frame rules rcspectinc the followinR matters: the number 
and forms of books of account to be kept by the treasurers of 
county, city, township, town, and villace municipalities, and 
of pohce villages respectively; the system of book-keeping 
to be adopted by all miMiici|>al treasurers or by the treasurers 
of any class of municipaliti 's, and by the treasurers of all or 
of any class oi school boards; the manner in which books of 
account, vouchers, receipts, moneys, and securities of muni- 
cipalities and school boards shall be kept; the audit and 
examination of atcounts and moneys of municipal corpora- 
tions and of school moneys by municipal and school auditors 
respectively, or by the Provincial Municipal Auditor, or by 
any person appointed by him for that purpose. 

Books of account were accordingly prepared and approv- 
ed by the Lieutenant-Governor in Council, after which it was 
the duty of the municipal treasurers to use them, if the 
system of books and accounts in use was not satisfactory to 
the Provincial Auditor. The analytical cash books ;hen 
issued went into general use in all municipalities except cities 
with over 6fteen thousand population, to which the regula- 
tion did not apply. This brought about considerable 
improvement and uniformity. 

In 1898, heads of municipalities were deprived of the 
right to nominate one of the auditors, and all councils were 
authorized, if they so desired, to appoint one auditor only, 
and to define his duties. This favored continuity and 


Municipal Statistics 

As a re«iill of a report in IHHl of a royal cotiimiiiion oii 
ftsriculture, a Provincial Bureau of Induslriei wat cttabliili- 
cd in INH^ for the purpose of collecling, tabulating, anil 
publiHliinn industrial infortnution for public purposes. In 
1B87, the activities of the bureau were extended to statisticii 
relating to the ftsscssment, taxation, and finances of 

1. The clerk of every municipality is reijuired to furnish 
to the secretary of ihr Ontario liurrau of Industries, at 
Toronto, who h attached to the Department of Agriculture, 
any in&ornintion asked for from the assessment and thr 
collection rolls. 

3. The auditors are required to send l<f the same officiiil 
a copy of their certified audit at the lime of its completion. 

3. The treasurer is required to make a return once a 
year of the financial transactions of the year, such as the 
receipts and expenditures, the assets and liabilities, on such 
fornij as the secretary of the bureau provides for that 

These returns arc received and examined as far as 
possible, and if complete, or if they require further explana- 
tion, are amended and corrected by correspondence. When 
satisfaclury, these statements arc published in tabulated forii! 
as one of the reports of the bureau. These reports now cover 
the vcars 1886 to 1910. Preliminary Bulletins have been 
issued including population to 191.'; and assessed values, tax- 
ation and debenture debts, etc. to 1!H4. As a result of those 
returns, there lias been a partial supervision of municipal 
accounts by the officers of the bureau with a view to making 
the rctiiT-;.^ (■« complete and reliable as possible. 

1 I ■' iii'i'i.upal records have been gradually improved, so 
that tlic required statistics may be easily obtained. The 
classification of acouiits in the approved municipal cash 
books was arranged to facilitate the preparation of financial 
returns to the bureau. The results for twenty-five years nro 
now available. 

The statistics rvlaliiig to assessment and taxation, whicli 
appear elsewhere, directed attention to a verl large increase 
in property values. 

The financial features of the reports show tlie very great 
development that has been going on in the municipal business 

of the Province. This is best emphasized by a comparison 
of the taxes levied in 1886 with those of 1914, the increase 

being in: 

Townships $ 1,771,574 or 40 per cent 

Towns and villaKes.... 2,486,151 or 143 per cent 
Cities 13,9.'>4,156 or 433 per cent 

Aids to Municipal Development 

The investigation of municipal problems with a view to 
the betterment of conditions has at all times been of the 
greatest importance. The Province of Ontario has not been 
behind in this respect, and, following the custom of other 
gcivernments, has usually placed this responsibility on com- 
missions appointed by the Lieutenant-Governor in Council. 
The reports of these special bodies have been valuable, and 
while their recommendations may not always have been 
accepted, they contained a great deal of information of the 
greatest interest to members of the Legislature and others. 

The Royal Commission on Agriculture recommrrided, in 
1881, among other things, the formation of the Bureau of 
Industries, which was afterwards entrusted with the collec- 
tion of municipal statistics. The Municipal Commission of 
1888 placed an outline of the municipal systems of various 
countries in convenient form, and compared the more 
important features with those of Ontario. The Drainage 
Commission of 189.1 was followed by a revision of the drain- 
age laws and the enactmeut of The Ditches and Watercourses 
Act, a most valuable aid in the settlement of local drainage 
disputes. The Toll Road Commission of 1895 dealt with 
those relicts of municipal mismanagement, and its report 
included suggestions for the purchase of the roads then in 
existence. The Ta'c Commission of 1898 included in its 
report the systems of assessment and taxation in other 
countries, and the report of a similar commission appointed 
in 1901 was followed by the adoption of the present law. A 
select committee on municipal ownership in 1904 set forth 
particulars of municipal ownership laws in other countries, 
and showed the extent to which the idea had developed in 
Ontario. The Hydro-Electric Commission reports resulted 
in the conservation of electric power development for the 
municipalities of the Province. The Railway Tax Commis- 
sion of 190.1 reported a large amount of well-considered 
information, and recommended radical changes in the system 
of railway taxation for Provincial and municipal purposes. 
The Highway Commission suggested plans, ways, and means 
for the permanent improvement of the highways of the Prov- 

The Statute Revision Commissioners, appointed every 
ten years, recommend many improvements in the Mun- 
icipal laws. 

The Ontario Municipal Association, organiied at Hamil- 
ton in 1899. has sinr<- been most active in considering the 
needs of municipaliti :i generally, and has been the means of 
brinRing about much progressive legislation. The University 
of Toronto studies in political science, published from time 
to time, have been most valuable in directing attention to 
municipal affairs. All these, combined with the critical but 
progressive attitude of the Provincial press, have done much 
to improve municipal conditions. 

The newer provinces, recognizing the lack of co-opera- 
tion on the part of the various Provincial authorities in 
Ontario, having to do with municipal affairs, included in 
their organization a sub-department of municipal affairs, in 
charge of an efficient deputy minister. The result has been 
most beneficial in directing municipal development along 
right lines. There would appear to be the greatest necessity 
for the establishment of a similar department in Ontario if 
local government problems are to receive the attention 
necessary to keep the municipalities abreast of the rapid 
progress that is being made elsewhere. 

One of the tendencies of presewt-day legislation is to 
surround both the legislative and administrative powers of 
municipal councils with a wise measure of central control. 

The supervising authorities have been shown to be; the 
Bureau of Industries, the Provincial inspection of county 
houses of industry, etc., the Provincial Board of Health, the 
Provincial Highway Commissioner, the Hydro- Electric 
Power Commission, the Railway and Municipal Board, the 
Provincial Auditor, and the Education Department, vhich 
regulates grants and reserves the right to approve of the 
dismissal of public school inspectors after they have been 
appointed by the councils. 

In the matter of returns relating to statistics, the same 
information may be demanded by several authorities, and 
the control of systems of book-keeping would appear to 
require consideration. The Railway and Municipal Board 
under their Act and The Public Utilities Act, have authority 
over books and accounts of public utilities. The Power 
Commission have a similar authority to which the Municipal 
Board cannot object. The Provincial Municipal Auditor, 
however, has a general authority to determine the system of 
book-keeping to be adopted in all municipalities. 

The continual investigation of municipal progress else- 
where, the adaptation of the best ideas to Ontario conditions, 
and the necessity for co-ordination throughout, all combine 
in favor of the idea that a Department of Municipal Affairs 
will greatly encourage future development and progressive